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dc.contributor.authorКравченко Олександр Валерійович-
dc.identifier.citationКравченко, О. В. Біотехнологічні засади підвищення енергоресурсоефективності та екологічної безпеки процесів на об’єктах комунальної інфраструктури : автореф. дис. … д-ра техн. наук : 03.00.20 – біотехнологія / Кравченко Олександр Валерійович. – Київ, 2019. – 49 с.uk
dc.subjectдеструкція ТПВuk
dc.subjectматематична модельuk
dc.subjectдеструкция ТБОuk
dc.subjectматематическая модельuk
dc.subjectiron removaluk
dc.subjectiron oxideuk
dc.subjectsolid wastes biodegradationuk
dc.subjectmathematic modellinguk
dc.titleБіотехнологічні засади підвищення енергоресурсоефективності та екологічної безпеки процесів на об’єктах комунальної інфраструктуриuk
dc.format.page49 с.uk
dc.description.abstractukДисертація на здобуття наукового ступеня доктора технічних наук за спеціальністю 03.00.20 – біотехнологія. – Національний технічний університет України «Київський політехнічний інститут імені Ігоря Сікорського» Міністерства освіти і науки України, Київ, 2019. Представлені науково обґрунтовані рішення з біотехнологічної інтенсифікації процесів, що використовуються у комунальній інфраструктурі населених пунктів. Розроблено біотехнологію видалення сполук заліза та мангану з підземних вод на швидких фільтрах з цеолітовим завантаженням при внесенні культур мікроорганізмів родів Leptothrix і Sphaerotillus. Реалізація біотехнології дозволяє досягти ефективності очищення води за залізом та манганом: з природними культурами - 94-99 % та 71-87 %; з селектованими - 98-99 % та 94-97 % відповідно. Розроблено технологію інтенсифікації процесу деамонізації у біофільтрах шляхом внесення у фільтруюче завантаження попередньо розрахованої кількості культур нітри- та денітрифікаторів, що дозволяє скоротити підготовчий режим роботи фільтра з 18 до 2 діб. Розроблено технологію одержання близьких за своїм складом до природних мікроценозів препаратів, використання яких збільшує ефективність біодеструкції на 26,4±0,2 у порівнянні з традиційними.uk
dc.description.abstractenDissertation for obtaining the scientific degree of the doctor of technical sciences in the specialty 03.00.20 - biotechnology. - National Technical University of Ukraine "Igor Sikorsky Kyiv Polytechnic Institute", Ministry of Education and Science of Ukraine, Kyiv, 2019. The dissertation is devoted to scientific substantiation of new energy and resource efficient and ecological biotechnologies for intensification of processes of preparation of drinking water and utilization of solid household waste in municipal infrastructure objects, containing removing iron, manganese and nitrogen compounds from water as well as intensification for biodestruction of organic compounds in solid wastes. In the study of the work of rapid filters on the water intake of the village of Khoroshiv, results were obtained that showed the iron / oxygen ratio to be at level of 0.12 - 0.25, which is according to existing ideas not enough to provide deep treatment, that was obtained practically. This lead us to idea of biotechnological process to take place. To confirm the above assumption, experiments were carried out on filtration of water with an iron concentration of 13,3 ± 0,8 mg / dm3 at a different filtration rate and in the presence of bacteria in the filter material. The results of additional experiments showed that usage of oxygen (which allowed biological growth) lead to deeper treatment than in case of hypochlorite usage. That is, the results obtained not only confirmed the role of microorganisms in the process of non-irritation / demaganization, but also showed the possibility of practical application of biotechnology methods to improve the efficiency of water purification from iron and manganese. For the thorough examination of the biological agent from the filtering material of the various filters, 10 cultures of iron and manganese oxidizing microorganisms were isolated. The evaluation of the morphology of the cultures obtained, according to the scheme, allowed them to be classified as Siderocapsa, Leptothrix, Sphaerotillus, Galionella, Metallogenium, Hyphomicrobium. The data of following experiments showed a predominant role in the processes of water disinfection of microorganisms of Leptothrix, Sphaerotillus, Metallogenium and Siderocapsa. Increasing the activity of a biological agent can be achieved by creating selective cultures of Leptotrix and Sphaerotilus, that can contribute to a deeper removal of manganese from water (up to 98% for Mn). To implement the proposed schemes a number of technological tasks were solved, including: to develop effective methods of transfer of inoculum to the loading of filters, to select the most suitable filtering loading for the specified purposes, to determine the optimum parameters and regimes of filtering and washing of the filtering layer. Based on the results of the research carried out for the implementation of biotechnology for disinfection and demagnetization on rapid filters, two technological schemes were developed using natural or selected microorganisms cultures. The study of the possibility of intensifying the deamonization of underground water technology was carried out by conducting a complex of pilot studies on the water of the artesian well in the city of Khmelnytsky. The experimental plant included filter with an aerator, loaded with a special filter material, on which the microorganisms are effectively fixed and retained. The results of the experiments allowed to reveal important dependencies. Since the concentration of dissolved oxygen at the filter inlet has an opposite effect on the flow of processes, it was appropriate to investigate their regularities at different values of this indicator. The results of experiments showed that when the oxygen supply was reduced from 8 to 5.5 mg / dm3, the concentration of ammonium in the filtered water was in the range of 0.11-0.12 mg / dm3, nitrites - 0.27-0.28 mg / dm3, and nitrates gradually decreased from 11.0 to 2.4 mg / dm3, that is, at high concentrations of oxygen due to nitrification, a significant amount of nitrates was produced, and as the oxygen content decreased due to denitrification, the decomposition of nitrates and their concentration declined. The mathematical model was prepared to describe this process and the resulting program was realized in Swift 4.0. The results of the comparison of the experimental data obtained with the forecast by model showed that the prediction error of the model does not exceed 6.0%, that is, it is much smaller than the allowable value for engineering calculations. Based on the results of the research and the developed model, a technology for intensifying the biofiltration process for ammonia removal was developed to decrease time of filters preparation. The use of technology has allowed to shorten the start time of the filter for use from 18 to 2 days. The interconnection between the morphological composition of the solid waste and the biocenoses formed therein was investigated by sorting several samples that arrive at the polygons mm. Kiev and Khmelnitsky. The correlation with coefficient R=0,65-0,68 was stablished and mathematical model to describe the process was obtained. An assessment of the adequacy of the developed model was carried out by comparing the predicted data obtained from the model with the experimental data for the map of the polygon in Chernivtsi with an approximate time of stay of the SHW for 5 years. Comparison of the predicted composition of the biocenosis with the actual allocated showed that the difference between the predicted and actual data on the number of bacteria in the biocenose was 12.5%, and according to the morphological composition - did not exceed 15%, which confirmed the adequacy of the developed model. An assessment of the effectiveness of the proposed technology was carried out by laboratory on samples of MSW in Kyiv using a traditional Bacillus-based preparate and mixed one, the composition of which was determined by simulation. According to the data obtained, the use of a mixture accelerated the biodestruction and rate of subsidence of the sample (by 26,4 ± 0,2%).uk
dc.description.abstractruДиссертация на соискание ученой степени доктора технических наук по специальности 03.00.20 - биотехнология. - Национальный технический университет Украины «Киевский политехнический институт имени Игоря Сикорского» Министерства образования и науки Украины, Киев, 2019. В диссертации представлены результаты научно обоснованных технологических решений биотехнологической интенсификации процессов, которые широко используются в коммунальной инфраструктуре населенных пунктов. Разработана биотехнология удаления соединений железа и марганца путем внесения микроорганизмов родов Leptothrix и Sphaerotillus. Реализация биотехнологии позволяет достичь эффективности очистки воды от желез и марганца: с природными культурами - 94-99% и 71-87%; с селектированными - 98-99% и 94-97% соответственно. Разработана технология интенсификации деамонизации в биофильтрах путем внесения в фильтрующую загрузку предварительно рассчитанного количества культур нитри- и денитрификатор, что позволяет сократить время пуска фильтра с 18 до 2 суток. Предложена технология получения близких по составу к естественным микроценозам препаратов, повышающих эффективность биодеструкции ТБО на 26,4 ± 0,2 по сравнению с традиционными.uk
dc.publisherКПІ ім. Ігоря Сікорськогоuk
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